Our Services

Get 15% Discount on your First Order

STU Health & Medical Enzyme Conversion Description Discussion Nursing Assignment Help

Enzyme Conversion Description

After studying Module 2: Lecture Materials & Resources, submit the following:

  • Starting with the precursor substance tyrosine or tryptophan, identify and briefly describe each chemical step required to create each neurotransmitter. 

Expert Solution Preview

Creating assignments and providing answers for medical college students is a crucial task in the role of a medical professor. In this case, the assignment focuses on the enzymatic conversion of precursor substances into neurotransmitters. Precursor substances, such as tyrosine or tryptophan, undergo specific chemical steps to form various neurotransmitters. Let’s explore the process involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters from these precursor substances.

1. Tyrosine to Dopamine:
Tyrosine is first converted into L-DOPA through the action of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. This conversion involves the hydroxylation of the aromatic ring of tyrosine. The enzyme requires tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a cofactor.

Next, L-DOPA is decarboxylated by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) to form dopamine. This reaction removes the carboxyl group from the L-DOPA molecule.

2. Tyrosine to Norepinephrine and Epinephrine:
After the formation of dopamine, it can be further converted into norepinephrine and epinephrine. The conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine involves the enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase, which adds a hydroxyl group to the β-carbon of dopamine.

Norepinephrine can either be stored and utilized as a neurotransmitter or can be further converted to epinephrine. The conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine requires the enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT). This enzyme transfers a methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) to the oxygen atom of norepinephrine, resulting in the formation of epinephrine.

3. Tryptophan to Serotonin:
Tryptophan is first hydroxylated by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase. This enzyme adds a hydroxyl group to the 5th position of tryptophan, forming 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP).

Next, 5-HTP is decarboxylated by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) to form serotonin. This decarboxylation step removes the carboxyl group from 5-HTP.

These chemical steps represent the enzymatic conversions involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters from the precursor substances tyrosine and tryptophan. The precise regulation and activity of the specific enzymes involved in these conversions play a crucial role in maintaining neurotransmitter balance and function within the central nervous system.

Share This Post


Order a Similar Paper and get 15% Discount on your First Order

Related Questions

WU Detail and Dynamic Complexity Discussion Nursing Assignment Help

Are you overwhelmed by complexity? If so, you are not alone. Peter Senge notes that people are now able to “create far more information that anyone can absorb,” and he continues to say that the “scale of complexity is without precedent” (2006, p. 69). This “detail” complexity can make managing

Pediatric Health & Medical Worksheet Nursing Assignment Help

Provider: i. Questions for HPI When did these symptoms begin? Is the child experience exercise intolerance? Any shortness of breath/signs of respiratory distress? History of genetic conditions? ii. Questions for ROS Poor feeding? Any newborn cardiac concerns? Previous cardiac history? Any pain, weakness, coldness to the extremities? Fluid retention? Cough

Health & Medical Capital Budgeting at Cleveland Clinic Nursing Assignment Help

Respond to each of the following prompts or questions: Using the information provided in the Los Reyes Hospital case study from Module Three, what capital expenditures may the selected departments need to budget? Considering the organization you selected, what is a capital expenditure that may be needed that would result

NVCC Service Implementation and Elements of Financial Nursing Assignment Help

Instructions: Part 1 1.Read Chapter 10, Capko. -Critique either Dr. Grainger’s or Mid-South Pulmomary Specialists efforts in developing  new services. -What lessons did you learn as related to new service development?   -List three main items which you must address before implementing a new service.  Instructions: Part 2 -The physicians

Healthcare is reimbursed in a variety of ways. The Nursing Assignment Help

Healthcare is reimbursed in a variety of ways. The prospective payment method is one of those ways. This paper will be about the prospective payment method where diagnosis-related groupings (DRGs) forms the basis for payment. Research and explain the origin, purpose, and description of DRGs. Include what payment is based on.

NUR 630 FIU Impact on Healthcare Systems and Public Health Nursing Assignment Help

Autism Spectrum Disorder, Intellectual Disabilities, or Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia In recent years, there have been reports linking autism to vaccinations. After studying Module 5: Lecture Materials & Resources, address the following in a well-written discussion post: Explain the controversy regarding vaccines as a possible cause of autism spectrum disorder. Does the