What is the difference between shaming that is stigmatizing and

What is the difference between shaming that is stigmatizing and shaming that is reintegrative? Why does stigmatizing shaming cause crime? How does this relate to labeling theory? What is defiance theory? Based on defiance theory, how would Lawrence Sherman want police to act when arresting suspects? How does labeling theory relate to the study of criminal recidivism? What is the greatest weaknesses of labeling theory?

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